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1.) Liu YL, Toubro S, Astrup A, Stock MJ "Contribution of beta 3-adrenoceptor activation to ephedrine-induced thermogenesis in humans" Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995 Sep, Vol 19 (9), Pg 678-85, PMID: 0008574280.

2.) Toubro S, Astrup A, Breum L, Quaade F "The acute and chronic effects of ephedrine/caffeine mixtures on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism in humans." Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
1993 Dec, Vol 17 (Suppl 3), Pg S73-7; discussion S82, PMID: 0008124407.

3.) Astrup A and Toubro S "Thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man"Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993, Vol 17 Suppl 1 Pg S41-3, PMID: 0008384179.

4.)Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S, Hein P, Madsen J "Thermogenic synergism between ephedrine and caffeine in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study" Metabolism 1991, Vol 40 (3), Pg 323-9, PMID: 0002000046.

5) PMID: 0001109569. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70(6):1040-5, 1999

6)Carpene C, et al. "Selective activation of beta 3-adrenoreceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells." Naunyn
Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1999 Apr, 359(4):310-21

7)Lorenz MW. Synthesis of lipids in the fat body of Gryllus bimaculatus: age-dependency and regulation by adipokinetic hormone.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2001 Aug, 47(4):198-214.

Medicinal ingredients you must know

Caffeine: The most common stimulant. An alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba maté, guarana, and (in small amounts) cocao beans. Found in much higher quantities in energy drinks. Most energy drinks contain between 70 and 200 mg. A 5 oz cup of coffee contains 110-150mg for drip, 65-125mg for percolated, and 40-80 mg for instant. Dr. Pepper gives you 61mg, and a can of Coke provides 50mg. A lot of people experience side effects above 200mg.

• Taurine: Taurine is an amino acid that your body naturally produces. It helps regulate heartbeat and muscle contractions, and energy levels. Usually your body makes enough that you don’t need to supplement. It is thought, but not proven, that under “stress conditions” like illness, physical exertion, or injury, the body does not create enough and supplements can help. Taurine might be a “mild inhibitory neurotransmitter”, some studies show it helps with excitable brain states. While this is not exactly what we want, maybe it helps level us out so we function better with elevated levels of other stimulants.

• Guarana: Guaranties comes from plants in South America. Amazonians have used it for a long time to increase alertness and energy. It is more dense in caffeine than coffee beans (3-4% vs. 1-2%). It is not just called “caffeine” because it contains a couple other things: Theo bromine and theophylline. They are found in coffees and teas, and are known stimulants.

• B Vitamins: (Niacin (niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxide HCI), Riboflavin also known as vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine)): These are essentially the things that help you convert crap to energy. Crap like sugar, which is found in abundance in energy drinks. The jury’s still out on whether or not they increase energy levels via supplementation, but they will sure help warding off the hangovers when you mix that energy drink with alcohol.

• Ginseng: Ginseng, an adaptogenic herb, is known to increase energy, has some anti-fatigue components, and supposedly relieves stress. Right now it’s suspected that ginseng helps stimulate the hypothalamic and pituitary glands, which then secrete something called adrenal corticotropic hormone. With a name like that, it can’t possibly be bad. Ginseng is nothing that’s naturally created by your body, so having this in your drink certainly won’t hurt. 200mg/day seems to be the standard dose, but you can safely take up to 2700mg.

• Ginkgo Biloba: It is suspected that ginkgo biloba is the longest-living organism on this planet. Using the theory that you get something’s (or someone’s) powers by eating the brains, eating the oldest thing on the planet is probably a good thing. Or maybe it is such a hardy mofo that it will kill you instantly. But that is never been the case. It helps memory retention, concentration, circulation, acts as an anti-depressant, and even shows signs of helping people with Alzheimer’s. 60mg is a standard supplementation dose, and you can easily take 240mg.

• L-Carnitine: An amino acid usually created by your liver and kidneys, this stuff helps up your metabolism and energy levels. Because of the way it interacts with your body, it may act as a thermogenic and help increase weight loss and endurance during exercise. The jury’s still out on whether or not you need to supplement unless you have an unusual diet, but you can take 2-6 grams without worry. Make sure you get L-Carnitine, which is the type your body creates and can use. D-Carnitine is “inactive” and may actually hurt endurance levels. Some people take this to support their heart, so putting it in an energy drink that increases your heart rate… good stuff

• Antioxidants (Citric acid): Antioxidants are things that help your body gracefully recover from the damage of free radicals. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, so claiming that your energy drink has a lot of antioxidants is like saying you’re buying really expensive orange juice. But they’re good, they help fend off illness and prevent cellular damage. Vitamins C and E, Vitamin A (aka retinol, beta-carotene), and selenium are all antioxidants.

• lucuronolactone: A naturally occurring substance manufactured by the human body. Like taurine, glucuronolactone is supposed to detoxify the body. Little research has been done on the effects, and the only relevant studies have been conducted on animals so the risk to humans cannot be adequately assessed. Glucuronolactone has received some notoriety due to rumours that it was a Vietnam War era drug manufactured by the American government and led to several brain tumour deaths at the time. These rumours are not based on documented facts.

• Pantothenic acid (calcium d-pantothenate): An antioxidant, water-soluble vitamin needed to break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It is found in whole grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat and other foods.

Non-Medicinal Ingredients

Sugars (Sucrose, Glucose): Glucose is the body’s preferred fuel. That is why you get hyper with a lot of sugar. Energy drinks contain a ton of sugar. It is a carbohydrate, and a lot of exercise regiments suggest a good dose of sugar for workouts lasting more than an hour. A lot of athletes take it in the form of rice or noodles, so they have timed absorption. You can take a bunch of this easily… 150 grams in your system might get you wired, but probably would not hurt you.
• Carbonated water
• Inositol
• Flavours
• Caramel

Green Tea Extract

Geen Tea Extract is a natural ingredient from the leaf of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Usage shows green tea causes a significant increase in 24-hour energy expenditure and enhanced fat-oxidation. In fact, effects were significantly greater than a group receiving only caffeine.

Scientific data supports the idea that the polyphenol/catechins in green tea act on the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands to increase calorie expenditure and fat burning.

Green tea also appears to inhibit the fat-digesting enzymes in the stomach, suggesting an obvious reduction in fat digestion and absorption.
Green tea is the second-most consumed beverage in the world and has been used medicinally for centuries in India and China.

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